Listed here are the completely different classifications beneath which athletes will compete on the Tokyo Paralympics:
Archery is open to athletes with an eligible bodily impairment.
Athletes at Tokyo 2020 will compete in two occasions: W1 and Open.
W1 is for athletes with an impairment in all 4 limbs that use a wheelchair, and Open combines W2 and ST courses, together with athletes who’ve an impairment within the legs and use a wheelchair or have a steadiness impairment and shoot standing or resting on a stool.
(The usage of assistive tools or an assistant is allowed relying on the impairment, whereas quite a lot of strategies could also be employed, together with pulling the bowstring with the mouth.)
Athletics is open to athletes with an eligible bodily, mental or imaginative and prescient impairment.
In athletics the game class consists of a prefix “T” or “F” and a quantity. The prefix T stands for “monitor”, marathon and leaping occasions, and F stands for “subject.” It signifies for which occasions the game class applies, both for monitor/soar/marathon or for subject occasions. Courses are divided when it comes to sort (indicated by the primary digit) and stage of impairment. On the whole, the decrease the second digit, the upper the extent of impairment.
- T/F11, T/F12 and T/F13 are for imaginative and prescient impaired athletes.
- T/F20 is for athletes with an mental impairment.
- T/F30 courses are for athletes with coordination impairment (involuntary actions, uncoordinated actions and/or muscle pressure) typically because of cerebral palsy or mind harm. Courses T/F31, T/F32, T/F33 and T/F34 are for athletes competing in a wheelchair. Courses T/F35, T/F36, T/F37 and T/F38 are for athletes competing in standing place.
- T/F40 and T/F41 are for athletes of brief stature.
- T/F42, T/F43 and T/F44 are for athletes with a leg deficiency, leg size distinction, impaired muscle energy or impaired passive vary of motion within the legs, with athletes competing in a standing place.
- T/F45, T/F46 and T/F47 are for athletes with arm deficiency, impaired muscle energy or impaired passive vary of motion in arms, with athletes competing in a standing place.
- T/F51, T/F52, T/F53, T/F54, T/F55, T/F56 and T/F57 are for athletes with impaired muscle energy, restricted vary of motion, limb deficiency or leg size distinction, with athletes competing in seated place e.g. with cervical twine harm, spinal twine harm, amputation, practical dysfunction.
- T/F61, T/F62, T/F63 and T/F64 are for athletes with a leg amputation, who compete with prosthetics in a standing place.
- WH1 is for gamers who require a wheelchair to play badminton and normally have an impairment in each their legs and trunk. Gamers are required to play in a wheelchair on this class
- WH2 is for gamers who may have an impairment in a single or each legs and minimal or no impairment of the trunk.
- SL3 gamers should play standing. The participant may have impairment in a single or each legs and poor strolling/working steadiness.
- SL4 is a second standing class the place the participant has a lesser impairment in comparison with Sport Class SL3. The participant may have an impairment in a single or each legs and a minimal impairment in strolling/working steadiness.
- SU5 is for gamers with an impairment of the higher limb. The impairment could possibly be on the enjoying or non-playing hand.
- SH6 is for gamers who’ve a brief stature.
Athletes with completely different eligible bodily impairments compete collectively in wheelchair basketball. All athletes compete in a wheelchair and have an impairment affecting their legs and arms. Gamers, for instance, have amputations or paraplegia. Not all of the gamers are wheelchair customers in each day life.
Each participant is assigned some extent worth based mostly on their practical potential, from 1.0 for a participant with the least bodily operate (‘low-pointer’) by to 4.5 for probably the most bodily operate (‘high-pointer’). Whereas most athletes have regular arm and hand operate, the primary variations between athletes of various sport courses are trunk management and sitting steadiness, which permits them to lean ahead and sideways to catch and move the ball.
There are 12 gamers in every group, with not more than 5 on court docket. The 5 gamers on court docket are solely allowed to have a most of 14 factors.
Boccia is open to athletes with an eligible bodily impairment.
Women and men compete collectively and there are 4 courses (BC1-4) based mostly on the sort or diploma of impairment. The principles are adjusted relying on the category, equivalent to permitting the ball to be kicked by athletes who’re unable to throw it with their palms, offering help from an occasion assistant, or utilizing an inclined ramp to roll the ball.
- BC1: Athletes in sport class BC1 have extreme exercise limitations affecting their legs, arms and trunk because of co-ordination impairments, and are usually depending on a powered wheelchair. They’ll grasp and throw the ball and don’t use assistive gadgets. Athletes with some leg management are allowed to propel the ball with their foot.
- BC2: Boccia gamers in sport class BC2 have higher trunk management and arm operate than the gamers in BC1. The talents of their arms and palms typically permit them to throw the ball overhand and underhand and with quite a lot of grasps. They aren’t eligible for help.
- BC3: Athletes competing in sport class BC3 have considerably restricted operate of their legs and arms, and poor or no trunk management because of cerebral or non-cerebral origins. Moreover, they’re unable to persistently grasp or launch the ball and to assist them propel the ball onto the court docket, they use a ramp and different assistive gadgets to roll the ball with the assistance of a Sport Assistant.
- BC4: Whereas the game courses BC1-2 embrace athletes with muscle pressure, involuntary actions or uncoordinated actions, sport class BC4 contains athletes with impairments that don’t have any cerebral origin. Amongst doable well being circumstances are progressive weak point and lack of muscle mass (muscular dystrophy), spinal twine Accidents or amputations affecting all 4 limbs. Gamers throw the ball normally with a pendulum swing, typically utilizing each palms or arms. They might use a glove to maintain their grip of the ball.
Canoe is open to athletes with an eligible bodily impairment.
Athletes are divided into three teams in accordance with diploma of impairment and exercise limitation. The courses are KL1 (athletes who’ve very restricted trunk and no leg operate and paddle with shoulders and arms solely); KL2 (athletes who’re partially ready to make use of their legs and trunk); and KL3 (athletes have trunk and partial leg operate. They’re able to sit with their trunk bent ahead within the kayak and are capable of paddle by bracing their legs and utilizing their hips).
Athletes compete in C (biking), H (handcycling), T (tricycle) and B (tandem) courses, relying on their impairment.
C class if for athletes with limb deficiency, impaired muscle energy or vary of movement and impairments affecting co-ordination, equivalent to uncoordinated actions and involuntary actions and is subdivided into courses C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5 in accordance with the severity of impairment.
- H class is for athletes competing with a handcycle with impairments equivalent to amputation or paralysis of the legs or motor operate impairments and is subdivided into courses H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5.
- T class is for athletes competing on a tricycle with a scarcity of steadiness and/or restriction in pedalling because of muscle pressure, uncoordinated actions or involuntary motion. It’s subdivided into courses T1 and T2. B class is for athletes with imaginative and prescient impairments competing on a tandem with a sighted pilot. B1, B2 and B3 athletes compete in a single occasion.
Equestrian is open to athletes with an eligible bodily or imaginative and prescient impairment.
In Para equestrian dressage driving there are 5 grades for athletes with completely different bodily and imaginative and prescient impairments that are grouped on the premise of various medical profiles. Decrease grades point out extra extreme exercise limitations and better grades embrace athletes with much less extreme exercise limitations.
- Athletes in Grade I’ve extreme impairments affecting all limbs and the trunk.
- Athletes in Grade II have both a extreme impairment of the trunk and minimal impairment of the arms or average impairment of the trunk, legs and arms.
- Athletes in Grade III have extreme impairments in each legs with minimal or no impairment of the trunk or average impairment of the legs and arms and trunk. Athletes in Grade IV have a extreme impairment or deficiency of each arms or a average impairment of all 4 limbs or brief stature.
- Grade IV additionally contains athletes with a extreme imaginative and prescient impairment or blindness (B1 sport class).
- Athletes in Grade V have a mildly impaired vary of motion or muscle energy or a deficiency of 1 limb or delicate deficiency of two limbs. Grade V additionally contains athletes with imaginative and prescient impairment (B2 sport class).
Wheelchair fencing is for athletes with an eligible bodily impairment. On the Paralympic Video games, wheelchair fencers compete in one of many following three courses, that are in flip grouped into two occasion classes:
Class 2: Athletes with truthful sitting steadiness and a traditional fencing arm, e.g. paraplegic athletes or incomplete tetraplegics with a minimally affected fencing arm and good sitting steadiness.
Class 3: Athletes with good sitting steadiness, with out help of legs and regular fencing arm.
Class 4: Athletes with good sitting steadiness with the help of legs and regular fencing arm.
In Paralympic Wheelchair Fencing competitions, the game courses are mixed into the next two classes for every occasion:
Class A: sport courses 3 and 4.
Class B: sport class 2
Soccer 5-a-side is a sport for blind athletes within the B1 class. All of the outfield gamers are completely blind though some might have minimal gentle notion, and all 4 should put on blackout masks to make sure equity.
Goalball is a sport for imaginative and prescient impaired athletes.
Gamers are partially sighted or completely blind (B1-B3 courses), however all put on eyeshades so these with various levels of imaginative and prescient impairment can compete collectively and to make sure truthful play.
Judo is a sport for imaginative and prescient impaired athletes.
Opponents are given classifications based mostly on the severity of their imaginative and prescient impairment starting from B1 (whole blindness) to B3 (low imaginative and prescient). B1, B2 and B3 athletes compete collectively in a single occasion.
Powerlifting is open to athletes with an eligible bodily impairment of their legs or hips, which might prohibit them from competing in able-bodied (standing) weightlifting. There is just one sport class in Powerlifting, however the athletes compete in several weight classes.
Rowing is open to athletes with an eligible bodily or imaginative and prescient impairment.
- PR1 is for athletes who’ve to use pressure predominantly utilizing their arms and/or shoulders however with minimal or no trunk operate. These athletes will probably even have poor sitting steadiness and so require strapping round their mid-section to offer help. PR1 athletes compete in singles sculls (males/ladies) occasions.
- PR2 is for rowers who’ve practical use of their trunk, arms and shoulders however usually are not ready to make use of the sliding seat to propel the boat due to considerably weakened operate or mobility of the legs. PR2 athletes compete in double sculls (combined).
- PR3 is for rowers who’ve residual operate of their legs, trunk, arms and shoulders and might utilise the sliding seat. These sports activities courses embrace athletes with imaginative and prescient impairment, and there could also be as much as two rowers with a imaginative and prescient impairment within the boat). PR3 athletes compete in coxed 4 (combined).
In taking pictures, there are three completely different sport courses for Paralympic disciplines (pistol and rifle) for athletes with an eligible bodily impairment. These sport courses are particular to the occasion the athlete competes in – both pistol or rifle occasions.
Courses are based mostly on the diploma of impairment and whether or not the athlete is ready to maintain the gun with their arms (palms or arms). The game’s three courses are SH1 Pistol, SH1 Rifle (capable of maintain a gun with arms) and SH2 Rifle (unable to carry a gun with arms, so a stand is used).
- Because the pistol is held with one hand solely, athletes in SH1 Pistol have an impairment affecting one arm and/or the legs, for instance ensuing from amputations or spinal twine accidents. Some shooters compete in a seated place, whereas others will compete in a standing place as outlined within the sport guidelines.
- * Because the rifle is held with each palms, athletes in SH1 Rifle have an impairment of their legs, for instance amputations or paraplegia. Some athletes will compete in a seated place, whereas others will compete in a standing place.
- SH2 Rifle athletes have an impairment that impacts their arms, that means they don’t seem to be capable of help the complete weight of the rifles themselves. Athletes due to this fact compete utilizing a taking pictures stand to help the burden of the rifle. Athletes competing on this sport class have impairments equivalent to arm amputations or congenital impairments affecting the muscle energy/motion of their arms. Some SH2 shooters have impairments in each the legs and arms, equivalent to tetraplegia. The vast majority of athletes on this sport class compete in a seated place.
There are two sport courses in sitting volleyball, known as VS1 and VS2 for athletes with an eligible bodily impairment. The impairment of athletes in sport class VS2 is mostly much less extreme than the impairment of athletes competing in sport class VS1.
- Athletes in VS1 have impairments that considerably have an effect on the core features in sitting volleyball. For instance, through-ankle or increased amputation, extreme circumstances of lacking or shortened limbs from beginning, stiff knee because of irregular adhesion and rigidity of the bones of the joint, muscle pressure, uncoordinated actions and involuntary actions, and so on.
- Athletes in VS2 have impairments that have an effect on the core features in sitting volleyball to a lesser diploma. For instance, amputation by the foot/ft, stiff ankle, amputation of 4 digits on one hand, much less extreme muscle pressure, uncoordinated actions and involuntary actions, and so on.
Athletes are divided into 14 sport courses. They’ll have an eligible bodily, imaginative and prescient or mental impairment. The game class names in swimming include a prefix “S” or “SB” and a quantity. The prefixes stand for the strokes and the quantity signifies the game courses.
- S stands for freestyle, butterfly and backstroke occasions. SB stands for breaststroke. SM stands for particular person medley. It’s not a sports activities class, however an entry index and calculated as (3xS + SB)/4; for courses S1-4 who’ve a 3-discipline medley, the method is (2S + SB)/3).
- S1/SB1 -S10/SB10 is for athletes with a bodily impairment and S11/SB11-S13/SB13 is for athletes with a imaginative and prescient impairment. The larger the quantity the extra practical potential the athlete has. S14/SB14 is for athletes with an mental impairment.
Desk tennis is for athletes with an eligible bodily or mental impairment.
Courses 1-5 are for wheelchair athletes. Courses 6-10 are for standing athletes. Lastly, class 11 is for athletes with mental impairments. Throughout the wheelchair and standing courses, the decrease the quantity, the larger the affect the impairment has on an athlete’s potential to compete.
Kyorugi is the one class which shall be practiced on the Tokyo 2020 Video games. It’s for athletes with eligible arm impairments. Occasions on the Paralympic Video games mix two sports activities courses: K44 for athletes with restrictions on one facet of their arm or leg, and K43 for athletes with restrictions on each side of their arms beneath the elbow joint. Each courses will compete within the K44 class.
Triathlon is for athletes with an eligible bodily or imaginative and prescient impairment.
- PTWC1 to PTWC2 (seated) is for athletes with impairments of muscle energy, vary of motion, limb deficiency equivalent to single or double leg amputation, and spinal twine accidents leading to paraplegia or tetraplegia. (Class 1 for athletes with a extra extreme impairment based mostly on hip and trunk operate). On this class handcycles are used for the biking occasion and wheelchairs for the working occasion. The 2 courses PTWC1 and PTWC2 compete collectively within the PTWC occasion utilizing a begin interval system
- PTS2 to PTS5 is for standing athletes with a limb impairment, for instance an arm or leg amputation or practical impairment equivalent to cerebral palsy. (Athletes are divided into Courses 2-5 based mostly on their impairment). On this class the usage of assistive gadgets equivalent to prosthetic legs is permitted for biking and working.
- PTVI1 to PTVI3 is for athletes with imaginative and prescient impairments (Class 1 for athletes with probably the most extreme impairment). They compete collectively in a PTVI occasion utilizing a begin interval system. On this class athletes are assisted by a information of the identical intercourse; a tandem (two-person) bicycle is used for the biking.
For the Tokyo 2020 Video games, occasions shall be held for 4 of the 9 courses outlined above, for each women and men. PTWC, PTS4, PTS5, PTVI for males, PTWC, PTS2, PTS5, PTVI for girls.
Wheelchair Rugby is for athletes with an eligible bodily impairment.
The present classification for Wheelchair Rugby is organised as follows – Each Wheelchair Rugby participant is assigned some extent worth based mostly on their practical potential, from 0.5 for a participant with the least bodily operate by to three.5 for probably the most bodily operate. A squad contains of a most of 12 gamers and, throughout play, the full on-court worth for every group of 4 can not exceed eight factors. Groups fielding feminine gamers additionally obtain a further 0.5 level allowance for every. This distinctive system signifies that gamers with minor impairments (high-pointers) can compete alongside these with extra severe impairments (low-pointers).
There are two sport courses in wheelchair tennis and all gamers have in widespread that they’ve an impairment that impacts at the very least one leg.
The primary sport class is the Open Division. Gamers are eligible to compete within the Open division if they’ve a everlasting bodily impairment that leads to substantial lack of operate in a single or each legs and that meets or exceeds the game’s minimal eligibility standards.
The second sport class is the Quad Division. Gamers who meet the eligibility standards above however who even have a everlasting bodily impairment that leads to substantial lack of operate in a single or each arms, and the place at the very least three limbs are affected, are eligible to compete within the Quad division. They’ve restricted potential to deal with the racket or to maneuver within the wheelchair so you can find that gamers might require racket taping and/or an assistive gadget to be able to play.